Consanguineous matings among Egyptian population (2023)

Consanguineous matings among Egyptian population (1)

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Consanguineous matings among Egyptian population (2)

Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics

Volume 12, Issue 2,

November 2011

, Pages 157-163

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Consanguineous matings among Egyptian population (3)

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Consanguinity is the blood relationship that exists among individuals that descend from a common ancestor. The objectives of the study was to explore the frequency and socio-economic determinants of consanguinity in Egypt. The study was carried out using a cross-sectional approach which included 10,000 unselected couples. All couples were recruited from the prenatal, gynecologic, neonatal and pediatric clinics as well as vaccination centers in three hospitals one in Lower Egypt (Cairo) and two in Upper Egypt (Sohag and Assuit).

Consanguineous marriage is still high in Egypt (35.3%), especially among first cousins (86%). However the frequency varies by region. It is higher in Sohag (42.2%) and Cairo (36.1%) than in Assuit (21.7%). Also it was higher in rural areas (59.9%) than in semi-urban and urban areas (23.5% and 17.7%, respectively). It was associated with decreased age of marriage, low educational level and unemployment in the couples which means that the socio-economic determinants are still working in maintaining this high rate of consanguinity. This is in addition to the high divorce rate and increased number of unmarried females in Egypt.

Advances in genetics have led to a deeper understanding of the effect of inbreeding on the occurrence of genetic diseases. As prolonged parental inbreeding has led to a background of homozygosity above that predicted by simple models of consanguinity, we encourage counselors to call on a reliable computer program for calculation of the recurrence risks in these families.

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Consanguineous marriage

Socio-economic determinants

Recurrence risk

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How common is cousin marriage in Egypt? ›

Cousin marriage is not only practiced by Muslims, but also by Egyptian Copts in the past century, although at a lesser rate (approximately 7-12% of all Coptic marriages). This rate has decreased to a very small percentage where Copts choose to marry cousins.

Do Egyptians marry their cousins? ›

“Nowadays, highly educated Egyptians hardly ever consider cousin marriage, while it is customary in the countryside. But in countries like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, endogamy is very common,” says Gad.

What country has the most consanguinity? ›

  • Background. Pakistan has been showing consistently the highest prevalence of consanguinity. ...
  • Methods. This study is based on secondary data analysis, using all four waves of the Pakistan Demographic Health Surveys carried out from 1990 to 2018. ...
  • Results. ...
  • Conclusion.
Apr 14, 2022

Where are consanguineous marriages most common? ›

Currently, couples related as second cousins or closer (F ≥ 0.0156) and their progeny account for an estimated 10.4% of the global population. The highest rates of consanguineous marriage occur in north and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and west, central, and south Asia.

Was inbreeding common in Egypt? ›

The ancient Egyptian royal families were almost expected to marry within the family, as inbreeding was present in virtually every dynasty. Pharaohs were not only wed to their brothers and sisters, but there were also “double-niece” marriages, where a man married a girl whose parents were his own brother and sister.

Why did ancient Egyptians marry their siblings? ›

The reasons for marrying between siblings were fundamentally two: Maintain the purity of the lineage and the social class. This was very important especially for the pharaohs of the Ptolemaic dynasty who were of Greek and not Egyptian origin. Marrying his sisters they kept this origin pure.

Which Egyptian king married his own daughter? ›

Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and later Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II.
SpouseRamesses II Merenptah? (possibly)
IssueA daughter whose name is not known
Dynasty19th Dynasty of Egypt
FatherRamesses II
5 more rows

Which king married his own daughter? ›

Shahjahan married his daughter Jahanara after the death of his wife Mumtaz Why this is not taught in History about Mughals? SPOT ON! You are 100% correct.

Which Egyptian king married his mother? ›

Ankhesenamun was well documented as being the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
ReligionAncient Egyptian religion
10 more rows

What cultures marry first cousins? ›

Cousin marriage occurs more commonly and is customary to varying degrees among people of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Middle Eastern origin, and also among some groups of Indian origin, Irish travellers, and some refugee populations.

Is inbreeding common in Africa? ›

With limited natural selection, recessive genes may become more frequent in an inbred compared with an outbred population. Consanguinity is common in North Africa (NA), and the estimates range from 40 to 49% of all marriages in Tunisia and 29–33% in Morocco.

Where is inbreeding most common in the United States? ›

Generally, inbreeding is more common in the southeast region of the U.S. and more rural states. Approximately 70% of inbred families live in desolate areas. Inbreeding is common, specifically, in the eastern part of Kentucky, and the region is plagued by the stereotype that every family is an inbred family.

What are the five countries with the highest incidence of consanguineous marriages? ›

Recent studies show that the prevalence of consanguineous marriages varies from 51–58% in Jordan [10], to 54% in Kuwait [4], 49% to 33% in Tunisia and Morocco [12], 58% in Saudi Arabia [13], 50% in United Arab Emirates [11], 52% in Qatar [1], [2], [14], 40–47% Yemen [16], 50% in Oman [18].

What country has the most cousin marriages? ›

A 2009 study found that many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and that first cousin marriages which may reach 25–30% of all marriages. In Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation.

What happens if first cousins have a child? ›

The vast majority of children of first cousins are healthy and do not have problems due to their parents' relatedness. It is important to keep in mind that even for an unrelated couple, there is an approximately 2-3% chance that their child is born with a birth defect, genetic syndrome, or disability.

Why did Egyptian kings marry their daughters? ›

To keep the royal bloodline pure, kings often married within their family, a sister or half sister, for example. In a few cases, they married their daughters, although it is not clear whether or not these marriages were true conjugal unions.

Did Brother and sister marry in ancient Egypt? ›

Brother-Sister marriages originated from the Egyptian tradition of “Royal incest” which was practised in Egypt by the Pharaohs as far back as 2000BC. According to anthropologist Černy, brother-sister marriages in the royal family were very frequent.

Who was the most inbred Egyptian pharaohs? ›

The most famous Egyptian pharaoh suffered from defects caused by inbreeding. Everyone has heard about Tutankhamun (1342–1325 BC). The insignificant Egyptian pharaoh became a world celebrity because nobody robbed his tomb.

Did Egyptians marry their daughters? ›

In ancient Egypt, it was common for the kings to marry in their own families. The Egyptian pharaohs would marry their own daughters and have children. King Tutankhamen had a relationship with his half-sister and they later married. The Egyptians did this so as to ensure that their bloodline remain pure.

Why did Egyptians inbreed? ›

The inbreeding in Pharoh's Egypt was usually done to emulate the god Osiris who married his sister Isis though not always.

Did Ramses have children with his daughters? ›

Ramesses II

Who in the Bible married an Egyptian woman? ›

She was the wife of Joseph and the mother of his sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. There are two Rabbinic approaches to Asenath: One holds that she was an ethnic Egyptian woman that converted to marry Joseph. This view has her accepting the Lord before marriage and then raising her two sons in the tenets of Judaism.

Were there fetuses in King Tut's tomb? ›

Two mummified fetuses, likely 25 to 37 weeks old, were found in individual coffins within King Tut's tomb. This newly discovered mummy likely dates to between 664 and 525 B.C., according to the Fitzwilliam Museum.

Which Pharaoh had 100 babies? ›

Ramses II, one of ancient Egypt's greatest pharaohs, is said to have fathered more than 100 children, including 52 sons.

What is it called when a daughter falls in love with her father? ›

The Electra complex is a term used to describe the female version of the Oedipus complex. It involves a girl, aged between 3 and 6, becoming subconsciously sexually attached to her father and increasingly hostile toward her mother. Carl Jung developed the theory in 1913.

What king married a 12 year old? ›

Although the precise year of Isabella's birth is not known, she was probably around twelve years old at the time of her marriage to King John on 24 August 1200.

Which king married his sister? ›

Akhenaten first married Nefertiti, who was renowned for her great beauty, but had no sons so he then married his sister in an effort to have a son. Hawass said it would take several months to reveal more details about the identity of the Tutankhamun's mother.

Who was the first black queen of Egypt? ›

Queen Tiye, who also lived in the 14th century B.C., was much more clearly a black African. Ancient Egypt, it seems, was a genuinely multiracial society.

Who was the most beautiful Egyptian queen? ›

At the heart of the exhibition is Queen Nefertari, who was renowned for her beauty and prominence. Called “the one for whom the sun shines,” Nefertari was the favorite wife of pharaoh Ramesses II.

Has a mother ever married her biological son? ›

A 47-year-old Malawian mother, Memory Njemani wedded her 30-year-old son because according to her, she spent a lot of money to raise him and she doesn't want other women to come and enjoy her hard-work.

What is the closest cousin you can marry? ›

In the United States, second cousins are legally allowed to marry in every state. However, marriage between first cousins is legal in only about half of the American states.

Is marrying your first cousin inbreeding? ›

First cousins have an inbreeding coefficient of 0.0625. Anything at or above 0.0156, the coefficient for second cousins, is considered consanguineous; that includes relationships between people and their nephews and nieces.

Does the Bible allow first cousins to marry? ›

Must first cousins be forbidden to marry? In the Bible, and in many parts of the world, the answer is no.

Are Middle Easterners inbred? ›

Inbreeding or consanguineous marriage is a common traditional practice in Middle Eastern cultures. Studies from various countries and communities of this region showed that the frequencies range from 20% to greater than 70%.

Where does inbred happen the most? ›

Of the practicing regions, Middle Eastern and northern Africa territories show the greatest frequencies of consanguinity. Among these populations with high levels of inbreeding, researchers have found several disorders prevalent among inbred offspring.

What are signs of inbred in humans? ›

Examples of defects seen with inbreeding include:
  • Reduced fertility.
  • Reduced birth rate.
  • Higher infant and child mortality.
  • Smaller adult size.
  • Reduced immune function.
  • Increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Increased facial asymmetry.
  • Increased risk of genetic disorders.
Jan 23, 2020

What state is known for inbreeding? ›

West Virginians became the prototypical “hillbillies,” and incest served as a crude “scientific” explanation for their downtrodden social condition. In more recent memory, the 2003 film Wrong Turn helped perpetuate the inbreeding stereotype.

What is the biggest inbred family? ›

This is the “world's most inbred family” with four generations of incest — including at least 14 kids with parents all related to each other. Perverted patriarch of the oddball clan Tim Colt ran an “incest” farm in the Australian Outback where he raped his daughters and fathered their children, say reports.

What ethnic group is the most inbred? ›

The social and cultural origins of the Hutterian Brethren, the most inbred population in North America, are described along with the characteristics that make the group useful for genetic studies. The Hutterites represent a closed population, with high levels of fertility and consanguinity.

Which human race has the highest rate of divorce? ›

At nearly every age, divorce rates are higher for black than for white women, and they are generally lowest among Asian and foreign-born Hispanic women. Recent demographic projections suggest that these racial and ethnic gaps in marriage and marital dissolution will continue growing.

Which racial ethnic group has the highest rate of divorce? ›

The black divorce rate is the highest among other races: 30.8. The Hispanic divorce rate is the second highest: 18.5. The white divorce rate makes up almost half of the Black divorce rate: 15.1.

Is it common for Arabs to marry their cousins? ›

Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages.

Do Muslims marry their cousins? ›

Cousin marriage, a form of consanguinity (marriages among couples who are related as second cousins or closer), is allowed and often encouraged throughout the Middle East, and in other Muslim countries worldwide such as Pakistan.

What is marrying your cousin called? ›

Consanguine marriage is marriage between individuals who are closely related. Though it may involve incest, it implies more than the sexual nature of incest. In a clinical sense, marriage between two family members who are second cousins or closer qualifies as consanguineous marriage.

What famous person married their cousin? ›

Edgar Allan Poe.

For his second marriage, the famed poet and author of “The Raven” wed his first cousin Virginia Eliza Clemm. The two were married when he was 27 and she was 13.

At what point are cousins not related? ›

What Is a Cousin? Cousins are people who share a common ancestor that is at least 2 generations away, such as a grandparent or great-grandparent. You and your siblings are not cousins because your parents are only 1 generation away from you.

Can a brother and sister have a normal baby together? ›

The simple, clinical answer to the question is: Yes. A brother and sister can have a perfectly healthy child together. Children born of incestuous couplings do have an increased risk of presenting genetic defects and/or deformities. But the increased risk is negligible with first generation inbreeding.

Why are cousins attracted to each other? ›

According to experts, cousins are sexually attracted to each other because blood relatives are raised in the same environment. They become so familiar with each other that even if they appreciate one another's physical appearance, there is a feeling of repulsion if they think about having a sexual relationship.

Is it common for Arabs to marry cousins? ›

Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages.

Why is cousin marriage so common in the Middle East? ›

Throughout the Middle East, Africa and parts of South Asia, marriage between family members has been widely practised for thousands of years, largely as a means of securing relationships between tribes and preserving family wealth, but also as a practical necessity given that genders are often kept separate.

Why do Muslims marry cousins? ›

The Muslim practise of cousin marriage adds clan loyalty to the ties implied by paternal consent.

What cultures marry their cousins? ›

In some South Asian, Middle Eastern, and north African countries, as many as half of marriages are consanguineous. 1 In Pakistan, half of the population marry a first or second cousin, more than in any other country.

Why do Turkish marry their cousins? ›

Turks often marry their first cousins and other close kin, under the incest laws of Islam, to keep control of wealth within the extended family; however, many marriages in Turkey today involve completely unrelated persons.

Do Pakistani marry their cousins? ›

This is a common practice globally in many cultures and countries, but it is far more common in Pakistan than in any other country with a high percentage of 55-60% marrying their first cousins. Consanguine marriages are not only common within Pakistan, but also a practice amongst British Pakistani communities.

Do Lebanese marry their cousins? ›

Twenty-five percent of all marriages were between relatives, and the spouses were first cousins in approximately 57% of all consanguineous marriages.

Which states can you marry your first cousin? ›

StateFirst cousin marriage allowedSexual relations or cohabitation allowed
ArizonaOnly if both parties are 65 or older, or one is infertileNo
47 more rows

In which country cousin marriage is not allowed? ›

In some jurisdictions, cousin marriage is legally prohibited: for example, in mainland China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, the Philippines and 24 of the 50 United States.

Why do royals marry their cousins? ›

Royals have been marrying their cousins since time immemorial, traditionally as a means of strengthening political alliances. What might be surprising though is that members of the royal family have continued to marry their cousins, right up to the present day!

Why do Muslims circumcise? ›

For Muslims, male circumcision is performed for religious reasons, mainly to follow the sunnah (practice) of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Moreover, there are attempts to label it as a contributor to cleanliness / personal hygiene. These are done largely to grant the practice scientific legitimacy and a moral foundation.

What religion can cousins marry? ›

Personal law of the Jewish and Bahai communities also permit marriage with a cousin. Under Christian law marriage with a cousin may be permitted by a special dispensation by the Church. It is doubtful if the expression "custom" as defined in the Special Marriage Act would include also personal law of the parties.

Is it allowed to marry your cousin in Christianity? ›

Must first cousins be forbidden to marry? In the Bible, and in many parts of the world, the answer is no.

What happens if first cousins have a baby? ›

The vast majority of children of first cousins are healthy and do not have problems due to their parents' relatedness. It is important to keep in mind that even for an unrelated couple, there is an approximately 2-3% chance that their child is born with a birth defect, genetic syndrome, or disability.

What are the benefits of consanguineous marriage? ›

Consanguineous marriages are thought to have social and cultural advantages like stable marital relationships, reduced risks of family financial problems, ease of marriage arrangements, improved female autonomy, better compatibility with in-laws, less domestic violence, lower divorce rates, and reduced possibilities of ...


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